There is no world absolute, complete privacy or world of complete national security.” Andrew McCabe. Today we are living in a very unsafe world .The world crisis ridden due to environmental challenges ,over -urbanization ,hunger ,poverty, population explosion ,militancy and nuclearisation .Pakistani state is confronting enormous problems of traditional security threats .The traditional/hard security threats are insurgency, militancy and wars etc .
Besides traditional threats ,there are so many non-traditional/soft security threats which are lethal for human survival and for state as well such as natural disasters ,food and water shortages ,displaced persons, trans-national crimes , climate change, gender discrimination, global warming, irregular migration and infectious diseases . The non-traditional security threats are transnational in character. They are universal .
These non-traditional security threats are unwelcoming guests of modern civilization which are disrupting the natural Eco-system .The normal life turn paralyze due to these threats. According to Melly Caballero Anthony, non-traditional security threats may be defined as: “Challenges to the survival and well-being of peoples and states that arise primarily out of non-military sources, such as climate change, cross-border environmental degradation and resource depletion, infectious diseases, natural disasters, irregular migration, money laundering , food shortages, people smuggling, drug trafficking, and other forms of transnational crime.”
The advancement in science and technology, nuclear capability, militancy and environmental challenges are contributing towards enhancing these non-traditional threats .The over -industrialization is leading towards depletion of Ozone layer (O3) and global warming .The increasing militancy and extremism are leading towards irregular migration and displaced persons.
The natural disasters are playing havoc with human lives by destroying the livestock, agrarian products and existing infrastructure. The natural calamities of earthquake and floods have affected human lives many times in Pakistan .The natural emergency is declared to provide relief to these floods affected.
The existing generation is spoiled due to these disasters . The natural disasters do not come alone. They bring lot of problems in their lap, diseases, security and food shortage.
Apart from this environmental challenges are formidable problems confronted to the people .The global warming leading towards day by day increasing temperature, which is laying very negative effects upon human lives. The seasonal normal temperature has turned disturb .The agrarian products and livestock get disturb.
After the second world war, tremendous changes have been took place in the entire world by transforming the entire world as a global village .The advent of 21st century also brought so many challenges in the entire world .Besides traditional security threats ,the non-traditional security also captivated the attention of entire world .The concept of security is totally changed at the advent of 21st century .
There is an emergence of new threats and the perception of threats is also changed in the present scenario .In the 21st century ,the rise of non-state actors ,environmental degeneration ,the inter-state rifts and Cyber warfare contributed towards the emergence of non-traditional security threats .The non-global security threats have changed total security paradigm .
“Every single day we’re handling a half a dozen serious issues simultaneously. The threats that are coming at us are coming at us in waves. They are very asymmetric, they’re very different than in the 20th century….It is not just about a war on terror…It has components relating to proliferation, to climate and energy, economic security, cyber security, the illegal trafficking of humans, narcotics , terrorism, any number of things.”
The post cold war era totally changed the concept of security .The human security is also included in security agenda .The human security includes: economic security, environmental security, individual security, political security and societal security.
The non-traditional security threats are multi-dimensional in nature. They have socioeconomic, political, cultural and geographical nature. They have not only tilted natural equilibrium. They have also effected social , economic ,cultural and normal life .As the civilization is advancing ,it is inviting tremendous changes in modern times . The path of modernization is accepting more artificial modes by leaving old natural methods .
The life style is totally changed .The non-traditional security threats are a big challenge to entire national architecture .The concept of human security is totally shifted.
As the concept of globalization has been developed, the atmosphere of investment, trade and commercial whaling’s have been created .Besides the institution of state, the role of non-state actors and multi-national companies is proliferating day by day. The non-state actors not only challenged the sovereignty of state but also subdue the position of state.
By looking way forward policy that how to counter these non-traditional threats by balancing equilibrium, there is need to chalk out a global, regional and national security to tackle these challenges. Human trafficking in one of the serious issue and an international crime .It is a global issue and it should be controlled by making a combined strategy .The terrorism is the hidden enemy of mankind and posed severe damage to mankind .
The scourge of terrorism should be combated by adopting viable strategy .The issue of terrorism and bad governance are the emerging challenges to the territorial integrity and state sovereignty. The issue of population is formidable, and family planning is required to control the population. The issue of narcotics and drug-addiction is a very serious problem for our generation. Our youth is trapped in a vicious trap of narcotics .
The path of drug-addiction ends at death .The most of the people finds that it is path of escape .There is a need to adopt the deterrence theory to prevent the damage posed by these non-traditional security threats. The government, NGOs, civil society, media, academia and other stakeholders should play their role to create awareness among the masses about these non-traditional security threats.
According to general analysis tomorrow the world will face the crisis of food shortage and scarcity of water. The future war will be on water and food .The non-traditional security threats are highly alarming for future .If they are not treated at this stage ,they will become a big threat for the future generation .
We will give a gift of bad governance , environmental hazards ,epidemics ,water shortage , immigration and narcotics . The non-traditional threats are lethal for our lives , for our existence and as well as for our planet .The non-traditional security threats intensity is aggravating day by day .The world is highly vulnerable to these threats . Pakistani government is highly aware about these non-traditional security threats .
The national security policy is revolving around these traditional and non-traditional security threats .Pakistan also acquired regional and international support to combat these challenges .On the platform of OIC, ASEAN, SAARC, ECO and UN, these non-traditional security threats are highly discussed and viable strategy is suggested that how to tackle them.
- The Writer is an Assistant Professor at Dept. of Political Science in University of Balochistan, Quetta; she can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.